Psychology "Cribnotes"

Defense mechanisms as proposed by Freud

Repression - the involuntary removal of something from consciousness.
Denial - closing one's eyes to reality.
Reactive formation - defending against an impulse by actively expressing the opposite impulse.
Projection - attributing to others one's own unacceptable desires and impulses.
Displacement - discharging an impulse by shifting it to a "safe" target.
Rationalization - manufacturing a reason to explain away bruises to the ego.
Sublimation - diverting the energies from an impulse into an acceptable outlet.
Regression - reverting to an immature stage when there were fewer demands.
Introjection - "swallowing" the standards of others.
Identification - identifying with a cause or larger group to have feelings of self-worth.
Compensation - focusing on certain strengths to call attention away from weaknesses.

Erikson's 8 stages of Psychosocial Development

Stage 1: Infancy -- Age 0 to 1
Crisis: Trust vs. Mistrust
Description: In the first year of life, infants depend on others for food, warmth, and affection, and therefore must be able to blindly trust the parents (or caregivers) for providing those.
Positive outcome: If their needs are met consistently and responsively by the parents, infants not only will develop a secure attachment with the parents, but will learn to trust their environment in general as well.
Negative outcome: If not, infant will develop mistrust towards people and things in their environment, even towards themselves.

Stage 2: Toddler -- Age 1 to 2
Crisis: Autonomy (Independence) vs. Doubt (or Shame)
Description: Toddlers learn to walk, talk, use toilets, and do things for themselves. Their self-control and self-confidence begin to develop at this stage.
Positive outcome: If parents encourage their child's use of initiative and reassure her when she makes mistakes, the child will develop the confidence needed to cope with future situations that require choice, control, and independence.
Negative outcome: If parents are overprotective, or disapproving of the child's acts of independence, she may begin to feel ashamed of her behavior, or have too much doubt of her abilities.

Stage 3: Early Childhood -- Age 2 to 6
Crisis: Initiative vs. Guilt
Description: Children have newfound power at this stage as they have developed motor skills and become more and more engaged in social interaction with people around them. They now must learn to achieve a balance between eagerness for more adventure and more responsibility, and learning to control impulses and childish fantasies.
Positive outcome: If parents are encouraging, but consistent in discipline, children will learn to accept without guilt, that certain things are not allowed, but at the same time will not feel shame when using their imagination and engaging in make-believe role plays.
Negative outcome: If not, children may develop a sense of guilt and may come to believe that it is wrong to be independent.

Stage 4: Elementary and Middle School Years -- Age 6 to 12
Crisis: Competence (aka. "Industry") vs. Inferiority
Description: School is the important event at this stage. Children learn to make things, use tools, and acquire the skills to be a worker and a potential provider. And they do all these while making the transition from the world of home into the world of peers.
Positive outcome: If children can discover pleasure in intellectual stimulation, being productive, seeking success, they will develop a sense of competence.
Negative outcome: If not, they will develop a sense of inferiority.

Stage 5: Adolescence -- Age 12 to 18
Crisis: Identity vs. Role Confusion
Description: This is the time when we ask the question "Who am I?" To successfully answer this question, Erikson suggests, the adolescent must integrate the healthy resolution of all earlier conflicts. Did we develop the basic sense of trust? Do we have a strong sense of independence, competence, and feel in control of our lives? Adolescents who have successfully dealt with earlier conflicts are ready for the "Identity Crisis", which is considered by Erikson as the single most significant conflict a person must face.
Positive outcome: If the adolescent solves this conflict successfully, he will come out of this stage with a strong identity, and ready to plan for the future.
Negative outcome: If not, the adolescent will sink into confusion, unable to make decisions and choices, especially about vocation, sexual orientation, and his role in life in general.

Stage 6: Young Adulthood -- Age 19 to 40
Crisis: Intimacy vs. Isolation
Description: In this stage, the most important events are love relationships. No matter how successful you are with your work, said Erikson, you are not developmentally complete until you are capable of intimacy. An individual who has not developed a sense of identity usually will fear a committed relationship and may retreat into isolation.
Positive outcome: Adult individuals can form close relationships and share with others if they have achieved a sense of identity.
Negative outcome: If not, they will fear commitment, feel isolated and unable to depend on anybody in the world.

Stage 7: Middle Adulthood -- Age 40 to 65
Crisis: Generativity vs. Stagnation
Description: By "generativity" Erikson refers to the adult's ability to look outside oneself and care for others, through parenting, for instance. Erikson suggested that adults need children as much as children need adults, and that this stage reflects the need to create a living legacy.
Positive outcome: People can solve this crisis by having and nurturing children, or helping the next generation in other ways.
Negative outcome: If this crisis is not successfully resolved, the person will remain self-centered and experience stagnation later in life.

Stage 8: Late Adulthood -- Age 65 to death
Crisis: Integrity vs. Despair
Description: Old age is a time for reflecting upon one's own life and its role in the big scheme of things, and seeing it filled with pleasure and satisfaction or disappointments and failures.
Positive outcome: If the adult has achieved a sense of fulfillment about life and a sense of unity within himself and with others, he will accept death with a sense of integrity. Just as the healthy child will not fear life, said Erikson, the healthy adult will not fear death.
Negative outcome: If not, the individual will despair and fear death.

Copied from About.Com.

Cognitive Distortions
More detail can be found at Psych Central.

1. Filtering. (disqualifying the positive & mental filtering)
2. Polarized Thinking. (all or nothing thinking)
3. Overgeneralization.
4. Jumping to Conclusions. (includes "mind reading" and "fortune telling" errors)
5. Catastrophizing. (magnification/minimizing)
6. Personalization.
7. Control Fallacies.
8. Fallacy of Fairness.
9. Blaming.
10. Shoulds.
11. Emotional Reasoning.
12. Fallacy of Change.
13. Global Labeling. (labeling and mislabeling)
14. Always Being Right.
15. Heaven’s Reward Fallacy. (priming karma with sacrifice)

Some of the warning signs of being in an abusive relationship, if the person from About Anger and Raging:

- Claims you are responsible for his or her emotional state.
- You frequently worry about how he or she will react to things you say or do.
- You have trouble ending the relationship, even though you know inside it's the right thing to do.
- Is jealous or possessive toward you.
- Accuses you of being unfaithful or flirting.
- Blames you when he or she mistreats you.
- Tries to control you by being very bossy or demanding.
- Is violent and / or loses his or her temper quickly.
- Interrogates you.
- Harrasses or intimidates.
- Limits your outside involvement.
- Doesn't take your concerns seriously.
- Doesn't accept responsibility for their own actions and shifts the blame.