Thursday, March 10, 2005

Art Therapy Presentation Outline - III. Techniques

Just a word of note, what is posted here is an intermediate draft - not the final one.

III. Techniques

A. General
1. The illumination of indistinct and unconscious expression is large part of psychoanalytic technique. (Fuller 1984)
2. An art therapist using the behavioral approach would use art to adjust cultural and social norms. (Fuller 1984)
3. An art therapist can use two and three dimensional materials for flexibility in art therapy. (Fuller 1984)
4. According to Dalley (1984) there are two stages of art therapy:
a) The client creates a piece of art. During that period of time the client may isolate themselves and withdraw into their thoughts and reflections
b) The client talks about their art production, any feelings they have, how that art is a reflection of those feelings, and how the making of that art reflects their state of being.
5. Basic approaches: directive or non-directive. (Dalley 1984)
6. Group Art therapy creates powerful group dynamics using projective art groups. Themes are introduced for a shared foundation that each group member adds their own personal meaning to. This method encourages both personal and group examination of problems. (Dalley 1984)
7. A family based art therapy approach exemplifies a client’s view of his or her role within the family unit. (Dalley 1984)

B. Specific
1) Free associative art - "Letting the painting paint itself" or portraying dreams with artwork, while writing down or otherwise noting other associations that come to mind while doing the art. (Allen, p 53-55, 61-63)
2) Scribble Drawings - Tape a large white piece of paper to a wall, close your eyes, take a pastel of any color and let it meander in overlapping lines. Draw loosely, from the shoulders. Open your eyes. See what image is there and then add what is needed to make the image complete or come to life. (Allen, p 55 - 59) This technique is good for personal problem solving. (Allen, p 136)
3) Active Imagination - Developed by Carl Jung. Taking a dream or a dream image and letting a story unfold from it. Alternate imagining, recording in words and drawing the images. (Allen, p 76-83)
4) Masks - Masks can represent "faces" of ourselves. (Allen, p. 81-82, 113-114) Similar to some primitive cultures, making masks of deceased loved ones helps to deal with the grief. (Allen, 127-140) Masks can also help resolve issues with long deceased relatives. (Allen, p.165-167)
5) Found sculptures - client creates three dimensional art using objects that they have "found" around them. A nature walk or on a trip to a junk store can provide suitable materials. These objects should be things that either delight, intrigue, confuse or repel the client. It is up to the client to figure out how these pieces should go together and be fastened. (Allen, p. 33-35)
6) Collages - Using images from family photos, magazines and other sources can help a client connect and/or explore their personal history and the connections with family and society. (Allen, p 144-145)
7) Mandalas - Creating circular drawings helps to symbolize "wholeness" or the intention to be whole. It is often a very calming task. (Allen, p. 192) Releases tension and gives a holistic way to examine inner conflicts using Jungian principles. (Fincher, p. 24-32) Also allows the client to focus themselves mentally. (Fincher, p. 175)
8) Art journals are a useful way to keep track of creative works and writing down any associations that come with them. (Fincher, p. 29)

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